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Neuerbemühle once upon a time….

POST UPDATED 28 July 2012: The Ritter family owned the Neuerbeműhle from 1805 to 1862. It was used as an oil mill and a saw mill and was generally called „die Schneideműhle”. See “Ritter mills, a cup and cholera” posting.

The kind folks at the Angermuseum der Stadt Erfurt referred my inquiry about The Ritter Mystery Cup to the Stadtarchiv Erfurt (the Erfurt City Archives) and I received the following response about Ritter family mill ownership.

First in German:

Im Eigentum der Familie Ritter befand sich in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts die Neuerbemühle. Die Liegenschaft der Mühle entsprach nach der damaligen Häuserzählung der Nummer 532, nach der heutigen Häuserzählung der Liegenschaft Neuerbe 48/49. Ich stütze mich bezüglich aller Angaben auf die maschinenschriftliche Dissertation von Käthe Menzel-Jordan: Erfurt, eine Stadt der Wassermühlen, 1955. Laut dieser Arbeit wurde die Mühle 1510 erstmals, und zwar als Waidmühle, erwähnt. Schon 1605 sei dann laut Aussage eines Verrechtsbuchs die Mühle wüst gewesen. 1666 habe sich auf dem Grundstück ein Garten befunden. 1716 sei dort eine Öl- und Schneidemühle auf drei Hofstätten neu errichtet worden. 1748 sei durch ein Verrechtsbuch als Besitzer der Öl-, Graupen-, Schneide- und Schleifmühle Samuel Thieme nachgewiesen. 1890 sei die Mühle verkauft und um 1900 abgebrochen worden.

Dr. Rudolf Benl, Director of the Stadtarchiv Erfurt

Now in English via Google Translation:

“In the mid of the 19th century the “Neuerbemühle” (Neuerbe-Mill) was in possession of family Ritter. Corresponding the contemporary housenumber-register it was no. 532, corresponding the present housenumber-register the estate is no. 48/49 Neuerbe [Neuerbe is the name of the street]. This information I (Dr. Benl) found in the PhD-manuscript (typewriting manuscipt) of Käthe Menzel-Jordan, “Erfurt, eine Stadt der Wassermühlen” [Erfurt, a town of watermills], 1955. According to this manuscipt the mill was first mentioned in 1510 as a “Waidmühle” [Waid-Mill; Waid = is a plant to blue-tinge cloth, the foundation of Erfurt’s wealth in ancient times]. Yet in 1605, the mill was deserted. In 1666 there was a garden on the estate. In 1716 an oil- and cutting-mill was erected. In 1748 the register listens Samuel Thieme as the owner of the oil-, groat-, cutting- and beveling-mill. In 1860 the mill was sold and in 1900 broken down.”

Dr. Rudolf Benl, Director of the Stadtarchiv Erfurt


Ritter Citizens of Erfurt 1761-1833

From the “Bürgerbuch der Stadt Erfurt 1761-1833” comes a listing of citizens in Erfurt. I have extracted the Ritter family members. The very last person listed, Johann Heinrich Ritter, is, I believe, my 3rd Great Grandfather and father to The Ritter Mystery Cup’s “C. Ritter”:  Christian Ritter.

The list is generally organized as follows: Numerical listing in book, last name, first name, “von” from where, occupation, “wohnt” resides where, date became a citizen. Anything in [BRACKETS] I added as a translation. Thank you Google translate.

233. Ritter, Johann Christoph, von Schlossvippach, Maurergeselle [JOURNEYMAN OR APPRENTICE MASON], wohnt in der Weißengasse; 12.7.1763
511. Ritter, Nicolaus Heinrich, von Zimmern infra, Müller [MILLER], wohnt in der Lindenmühle vor dem Johannistor; 20. 1.1766
605. Ritter, Heinrich Jacob, von Schlossvippach, Maurer [MASON], wohnt auf dem Kaufmannsturm; 10.1.1767
752. Ritter, Johannes, von Hildburghausen, Postknecht [POST BOY], wohnt vorm Löbertor; 13. 7.1768
805. Ritter, Johann Christoph, von Riethnordhausen, Taglöhner [LABORER], wohnt vorm Johannistor; 10.1.1769
1589. Ritter, Johann Martin, von hier, Müller [MILLER], wohnt in der Lindenmühle vor dem Johannistor; 20. 9.1777
1734. Ritter, Johann Georg, von hier, Taglöhner [LABORER], wohnt in Weißengasse (Andreasgemeinde); 19.6.1779
1928. Ritter, Johann Friedrich, von hier, Taglöhner [LABORER], wohnt vorm Krämpfertor; 19. 4.1781
2284. Ritter, Johann Christoph, von hier, Tuchmacher [CLOTHIER], wohnt bei St. Michaelis; 4. 11.1784
3019. Ritter, Johann Christian Emanuel, von hier, Maurer und Steinhauer [BRICKLAYER AND STONEMASON], wohnt in der Eimergasse; 25. 2.1791
3284. Ritter, Heinrich Ludewig, von Nöda, Müller [MILLER], wohnt vor dem Löbertor; 6. 4.1793
4081. Ritter, Johann Friedrich, von hier, Zeugmacher [TOOLMAKER], wohnt Unter den Weißgerbern (Moritzgasse); 15. 3.1799
4180. Ritter, Johann Nikolaus Heinrich, von hier, Sackträger [‘CARRIER BAG’], wohnt in der Augustinergasse; 31.10.1799
4204. Ritter, Johann Michael, aus Berlstedt, Postknecht, Postillon [POST BOY COACHMAN], wohnt in der Rosengasse (Thomasgemeinde); 9. 1.1800
4346. Ritter, Johann Martin, von hier, Trödler (später Gesellschaftsdiener, dann Commissionär) [JUNK DEALER (LATER SOCIETY SERVANT)], wohnt in der Krämpfergasse; 18. 10.1800
4838. Ritter, Adam Ephraim, von hier, Mühlbursch (später Mehlhändler) [FLOUR DEALER], wohnt in der Marbacher Gasse; 17. 8.1803
4856. Ritter, Johann Heinrich, (aus Nöda), Böttchermstr. [?], wohnt auf der Pilse; 1. 10.1803
5035. Ritter, Balthasar, (Mahl-)Müller [MILLER]; 28. 6.1806
5328. Ritter, Joh. Samuel, Mehlhändler [FLOUR DEALER], geb. in Erfurt; 4. 12.1808
5443. Ritter, Joh. Heinrich, Mühlbursch [?], geb. in Erfurt; 8. 12.1809
6167. Ritter, Gottfried, Taglöhner [LABORER], in Erfurt geb.; 24. 7.1816
6604. Ritter, Heinrich Jacob, ev., Metzger [BUTCHER], hier geb.; 6. 7.1819
7176. Ritter, Conrad, ev., Zimmergesell [“SOCIAL ROOM”], geb. 1. 4. 1790 in Aussensiehl in der Schweiz; 23.4.1824
7469. Ritter, Lebrecht, ev., Fleischer [BUTCHER], am 30. 9. 1802 hier geb.; 30. 3.1827
7618. Ritter, Johann Heinrich, ev., Müller [MILLER] am 22. 2. 1804 hier geb.; 26. 9.1828

Living at a Mill

Florian Eickmann (in Romania) has provided excellent leads into the unraveling of the mystery of The Ritter Mystery Cup and recently she sent this informative email about mill life and this cup….

For a watermill of that time it was absolutely usual to have accomodation in the same building as the (water)mill. For safety reasons (fire) they used to have seperate entrance doors and a thick brick or natural sone wall to separate the two functions from one another. Of course, dust was a different issue – the millers’ wives did not want to have flour inside the living room all the time – having no vaccuum cleaners yet ;-))

In a way the group of buildings on the cup look very much like a typical mill of that time witht the small building in the middle being the actual mill. What makes the situation unusual is that there are two different buildings with curtains on the windows. Usually there was just one home for the millers’ family with some primitive rooms for auxiliary staff and trainees that were not part of the family. A typical small mill with an output of no more than one or two tons of flour in 24 hours would have needed two or three skilled workers to operate it… in case they also had an oilmill or a sawmill more workers would have been needed…

Sometimes when a mill or a farm was handed over from the father to the (oldest) son, the older generation moved out of their previous home to a smaller adjacent one, the socalled “Altenteil” or “Altentheil”. So maybe the second building with curtains was erected on behalf of such an occasion???

Talking about the small girl playing, I do not consider the scene very unusual. This is exactly how I grew up in my grandfather’s mill :-). To me it only looks strange to find such situation shown in a picture of that time. The only reason I can imagine is that she was a true person who was of some import to the one who was the first owner of the cup. Maybe a daughter or a small sister?

I recently read that at a time there must have been more than 60 mills in Erfurt – this will make it very difficult to identify the place. The name “Ritter” is not too widespread in Germany, it is not like Müller, Meier, Schulz… but on the other hand, milling used to be a business that was kept in families over the generations and often enough we find the same family name in a region in quite huge numbers of mills. If a miller had five sons all of them would have been trained as millers or millwrights but only one would have been handed over the family’s mill. The other four would have married otheFlorian r millers’ daughters and moved to different mills… So now that we have two Ritters on two different Erfurt mills, I am almost convinced that we will be able to find many more… :-).

Thank you, Florian!

With her permission, Florain Eickmann’s email is “Schneckentrieur AT gmx DOT de”

“Let Them Eat Kuchen” mmmm…cake

Okay, am I imagining things or does that look like a piece of cake the Lady in Blue is toting? The Ritter Mystery Cup seems to celebrate a 21st birthday, so could it be? Cake? What else would a mid-19th century Frau be carrying? You tell me. (click on her to see cup photos)

Composite picture of the Mill (is it a house too?)

Take a look at the composite photo here. Werfen Sie einen Blick auf den Composite-Foto hier.

Present day Heiligen Muhle compared to The Mystery Cup

There is a modest resemblance between the image on the Ritter Mystery Cup and the present day Heiligen Mühle. What do you think?


Mill History Translation

With apologies to German speaking people everywhere, I have translated two sections from ERFURTER MÜHLENGESCHICHTE–okay, maybe not me but mostly the Google Translate computers, which refer to Ritter family ownership. This article on the history of mills in Erfurt is noted in my LINKS page. I suspect the Mill depicted on the Ritter Mystery Cup is the same as that referred to in this article. But, remember, I still do not have verification. The original German text follows with an English translation below. I have added emphasis to the Ritter names mentioned as well as any text within [brackets].

German Text

The first section….

Die Niedere Waid- oder Weith-, Untere Papier-, Heilungs-, Heilings-, später Heiligen-Mühle

Diese Mühle ist eine der ältesten Waidmühlen, war sie durch ihre Lage mitten im Ackerland und doch in der Nähe der Stadt gelegen. Bereits 1332 berichtet Hermann von Bibra, jede Mühle in und ausserhalb Erffurths, bis zur Nieder-Weith-Mühle, hatte für Erlaubnis des Legens eines Fachbaums jährlich fünf Schilling zu bezahlen. Bis zu dieser Mühle erstreckten sich die Rechte des Mainzer Erzbischofs. Besitzer der Mühle waren Jahrhunderte lang die Patrizierfamilie Ziegler. Bis1518 erscheint der Name “nieder Waidt Mühle”. Ausgangs des 16. Jahrhunderts wird sie zur Papiermühle umgebaut und erscheint im „Verrechten – Buch“ Den Betrieb der Mühle leitete ein Meister als Pächter. 1610 kaufte der Papierer Philipp Becker. 1680, 1698, 1722 war Jacob Becker Besitzer und hatte an den Kurfürstlichen Mainzer Hof jährlich viel Geld zu zahlen, außerdem eine Gans, sowie einen Thaler Fachbaumzins. Bis 1778 war Joh. Mich. Becker Eigentümer der Papiermühle, von welchem Joh. Mich. Zacke jene später erbt und die Mühle 1781 an Kommerzienrat Johann Friedrich Lüdemann verkauft. Über ihn sowie die Mühle berichtet das Kirchenbuch:

Bis zum 5. November 1813 stand eine Papiermühle, von welcher der Zins errichtet  werden musste ” Untere Papiermühle”.

Nach dem diese von den Franzosen niedergebrannt und ihr Besitzer Kommerzienrat Lüdemann an den Schrecken und erlittenen Misshandlungen gestorben war, kaufte 1814 von dessen Erben der Müller Joh. Heinrich Schaffner aus Gispersleben die Stätte und baute darauf eine Öl- und Graupenmühle.

1824 wird der Müllermeister Simon Friedrich Ritter Besitzer, 1839 Müllermeister Joh. Andreas Naue, der die von seinem Vorgänger eingerichtete Mahlmühle in eine Graupenmühle umbaut.

1872 übernehmen zwei Söhne und 1884 Albert Naue allein das ganze Anwesen.  Da die GraupenhersteIlung in Folge der großen Wasser- und Dampfmühlen mehr und mehr zurückging, wurde ein Teil der Wasserkraft zur Fabrikation von Kessel- und Zentralheizungen unter der Firma M. Heller & Co. benutzt, welche von Friedrich und Albert Naue unter gleicher Firma weiter betrieben wurde.

The second section….

Die Heiligenmühle

an der Mittelhäuser Straße wurde bereits 1332 erwähnt. Anfang 1500 wurde sie auch Nieder Waidt Mühle, um 1600 Heilungsmühle genannt.

Mühlenbesitzer waren: Familie Rehsemarkt (1332), Phillip Becker (1610), Heinrich Stiegel (1616), Hans Schultes (1620), Hans Iserstedt (1621), Jakob Becker (1688), Johann Friedrich Lüdemann (1781), Friedrich Ritter (1824), Andreas Naue (1839), Heinrich und Albert Naue (1872).

Die Heiligenmühle war halb Öl- und Mahlmühle, danach auch Erbsen- und Hafergrützenmühle.

Um 1920 entstand in ihren Räumen eine Kesselfabrik und ein Gewächshaus, sowie eine Fabrik zur Herstellung von Zentralheizungen und Eisenkonstruktionen.

English Translation

The first section….

 The Low-Waid and Weith, Lower paper, healing, Heilings, later Saint-mill

This mill is one of the oldest Waidmühlen [Woad Mill, the Woad plant was used for producing blue pigment], it was through its location in the arable land and yet located near the city. Already in 1332, Hermann von Bibra reported, each mill in Erffurt and out to the Lower-Weith-Mill, had to pay five shillings annually for the permission of setting a specialized tree.

The rights of the archbishop of Mainz extended up to this mill. Owner of the mill were for centuries the patrician family Ziegler. To 1518 appears the name “Nieder Waidt Mühle” [Lower Waidt Mill”].

Starting from the 16th Century, it is converted to a paper mill and will appear in the “Verrechten – book” The operation of the mill launched a masterpiece as a tenant. 1610 paper-maker Philip Becker bought the [mill].

1680, 1698, 1722 was Jacob Becker and owners had to pay to the Kurfürstlichen Mainzer [Electoral Court] in Mainz every year a lot of money, and a goose, and a dollar tree specialized interest. To 1778 Joh. Mich. Becker was owner of the paper mill, from which Joh. Mich. Zacke that inherits later sold the mill and Commerce 1781 Johann Friedrich Lüdemann. About him, and the mill reported the church book:

Until the 5th November 1813 stood a paper mill, from which the interest rate had to be built “Lower Paper Mill.”

After this the French burned down and their owners to the horrors Counselor Lüdemann and suffered ill-treatment had died, bought in 1814 by the heirs of John Henry Müller Schaffner Gispersleben from the site and to build an oil and Shellers.

1824 the miller owner Simon Friedrich Ritter, 1839 master miller Joh. Andreas Naue that remodels its predecessor have set up a grist mill Shellers.

1872 and 1884 take two sons, Albert Naue alone the whole property. Since the GraupenhersteIlung [?] a result of the large water and steam mills more and more declined, one part of the hydroelectric power for the manufacture of boilers and central heating systems under the name M. Heller & Co. was used, which was operated by Frederick and Albert Naue under the same company continues.

The second section….

The Holy mill

The  Heiligenmühle [Holy, or Saints Mill] on Mittelhäuser Straße [Middle Homes Road] was mentioned beginning in 1332. Beginning in 1500 the mill was also called Nieder Waidt Mühle [Lower, or Low Waidt Mill] and around 1600 Heilungsmühle [healing, recovery, cure, treatment? mill].

Mill owners were: Rehsemarkt Family (1332), Phillip Becker (1610), Heinrich Stiegel (1616), Hans Schultes (1620), Hans Iserstedt (1621), Jakob Becker (1688), Johann Friedrich Lüdemann (1781), Friedrich Ritter (1824), Andreas Naue (1839), Heinrich und Albert Naue (1872)

Later Heiligenmühle was half oil and flour mill and even milled peas and oatmeal.  A boiler plant and a greenhouse, as well as a factory for the manufacture of central heating systems and iron structures emerged on its premises around 1920.